Studies on Effect of Different Extraction Methods on The Quality of Pomegranate Juice And Preparation of Spiced Pomegranate Juice
Priyanka P1, Sayed H.M2, A.A Joshi3*,Jadhav B.A4, Chilkawar P.M5
1 Student College of Food Technology,Associate Professor College of Food Technology, India
2 S. R. A. Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition College of Food Technology, India
3 RA College of Food Technology Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, India
4 SRA Naigaon college of food technology, Nanded, India
5 Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani-431401, India.
RA College of Food Technology Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, India
Article Type: Research Article
Received: May 23, 2014; Accepted: June 18, 2013; Published: June 25, 2013
Citation: A.A Joshi, et al.(2013), Studies on Effect of Different Extraction Methods on The Quality of Pomegranate Juice And Preparation of Spiced Pomegranate Juice. Int J Food Sci Nutr Diet. 2(5), 51-55. doi: dx.doi.org/10.19070/2326-3350-1300010
Copyright: A.A Joshi© 2013. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The present investigation was carried out to standardize the method of extraction of juice and to study the effect of extraction method on yield and quality of pomegranate juice. Also the efforts were also made to standardize the recipe for preparation of spiced pomegranate juice by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared product for commercial use. Further efforts were made to evaluate the chemical quality of prepared pomegranate juice enriched with spices for their nutritional and organoleptic quality. The juice was also analysed for shelf life study on both i.e. at room as well as refrigeration temperature and techno-economic feasibility of spiced pomegranate juice was also assessed.
2.Materials And Methods
2.1.ProximateAnalysis of spiced pomegranate juice
3.Extraction of Juice
3.1.Hand Press Method (M1)
3.2.Domestic Mixer Method (M2)
3.3.Clarification of juice
4.Storage Studies of Pomegranate Juice and spiced Pomegranate juice
4.1.Assessment of Energy Value of value added products
4.2.Assessment of Techno-Economical Feasibility
5.Results And Discussion
5.1.Effect of different extraction methods on chemi-cal parameters of Pomegranate juice
5.2.Effect of storage temperature on quality of juice
Pomegranate is an important crop for dry land areas in India. The two varieties i.e. Ganesh and Arakta were used for the present study. Kandhari/ Arakta which is large sized with deep red rind, arils dark blood red, hard seedsand slightly bitter juice. And Ganesh variety with Medium sized; soft seeds; pinkish flesh and juice with agreeable taste. Generally these fruits are used for table purpose; however they are also processed into varieties of products like juice, squash, syrup, wine, anarrub and anardana (La Rae, 1969). The special structure of fruit is one of main factors which limit its industrial processing. The fruits can be preserved and processed into different products like juice, squash, syrup, jelly, wine, anardana and canned beverages.
The juice from fresh pomegranate fruit is an excellent cooling beverage for alleviating thirst in cases of fever and sickness. It acts on liver, heart and kidneys and tones up their functions. It supplies the required minerals and helps the liver to preserve the vitamin from the food. It also increases the body resistance against infections. The juice is an excellent cooling beverage for alleviating thirst in cases of fevers and sickness. It also increases the body resistance against infections (Seeram et al., 2008). The juice particularly tannin fraction, reduces lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol, accumulation and development of atherosclerosis (Esmaillzadeh et al., 2004). Commercialization of process technology and pomegranates products in market is very important to improve economy. Knowing the importance of health benefits of pomegranate and all related aspects, the present investigation entitled “Studies on effect of different extraction methods on the quality of pomegranate juice and preparation of spiced Pomegranate juice” was carried out to standardize the recipe for preparation of spiced pomegranate juice by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared product for commercial use. Further efforts were made to evaluate the chemical quality of prepared pomegranate juice enriched with spices for their nutritional and organoleptic quality. Techno-economic feasibility of spiced pomegranate juice was also assessed.
Materials And Methods
Pomegranate fruits of cultivars Ganesh and Arakta were selected from local market. The fruits of uniform size, colour and maturity were selected by visual observation and used as experimental material. Spices like cardamom, clove, fennel and other material required for preparation of spiced Pomegranate juice were procured from local market.
The analysis of variance of the data obtained was done by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for different treatments as per the methods given by Panse and Sukhatme (1967). The analysis of variance revealed at significance of P < 0.05 level, S.E. and C.D. at 5 % level is mentioned wherever required.
Extraction of Juice
The filtered pomegranate juice was used for clarification using commercially available fining agent gelatin and bentonite. Firstly juice was filtered through muslin cloth. To this juice bentonite at 0.5% of juice was added and juice was held for 4 hrs. Then the treated juice was filtered through muslin cloth. This juice was pasteurized at 820C for 15 min. to get clarified juice.
Storage Studies of Pomegranate Juice and spiced Pomegranate juice
Pomegranate spiced juice was analyzed for various attributes on every 15th,30th,45th,60thday and shelf life studies were carried out for a period of 2 months. The pomegranate juice samples were stored at ambient temperature (27-280C) and at refrigerated temperature (4-50C).
Results And Discussion
It is observed from Table1 that on the basis of whole fruit, percent juice yield by hand press method (M1) and domestic mixer method (M2) in Ganesh cultivar was 50.25 and 55.50 percent while in Arakta cultivar 50.20 and 55.00 percent respectively. It was noted that higher juice yield was obtained for both cultivars using mixer due to crushing of whole seeds. The juice obtained by using mixer had higher turbidity and increases the load of clarification of juice. Comeroglu et al (1992) showed that juice yield of pomegranate was 50 percent of its whole fruit and 60 percent of arils.
The TSS, acidity, pH, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar in juice extracted by method M1 for Ganesh cultivar were 150Bx, 0.3 percent, 3.2, 13.00 percent, 12.30 percent and 1.7 percent. Whereas juice extracted by method M2 showed values were 15.500Bx,0.32 percent, 3.1, 13.50 percent, 12.00 percent and 1.5 percent respectively. It was observed that there was slight increase in TSS in method M2 due to crushing of seeds. In case of Arakta cultivar there is slight change in values of chemical parameters like Ganesh variety.
Miguel et al (2004) reported that there is no significant difference in content of sugars, acidity in juices obtained through application of different extraction methods.
Polyphenols are most prominent antioxidants in our diet. Among polyphenols, anthocyanins are predominant group of polyphenol with high colouring potential (Wrolostad et al 2005). Ascorbic acid is also well known for its antioxidant properties. It was found that the concentration of exreacted anthocyanins and ascorbic acid were found to be more by domestic mixer extraction method.
Anthocyanin content in Arakta cultivar was higher 16-18.20 mg/100ml juice than anthocyanin content inGanesh cultivar 4.50-7.25 mg/100ml juice. The results reported in Table 3 showed the lower total anthocyanins values than the results reported by Cam et al.,(2009). Ascorbic acid content in Ganesh cultivar was 8.5-9 mg/100g and in Arakta cultivar 9.2-9.5mg/100g.The values obtained in the current study are in agreement with the results reported by Kulkarni and Aradhya (2005).
It is observed from Table 4 that there was not much variation in mineral content in both the cultivars as well as for different extraction methods. The results obtained were similar with results reported by Chavan et al.,(1995).
It is observed from Table 5 that sample A1 scored highest score for overall acceptability was 8.5 than A, G and G1 7, 7.5 and 8 respectively. The sample A1 scored higher 8.5 for overall acceptability among other samples may be due to colour of Arakta Cultivar compared to Ganesh cultivar and addition of spice extract than control i.e. without addition of spices. Flavored spicy pomegranate juice remarkably improved organoleptic quality.
It is observed from values in Table 6 that values of TSS, Total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugar of pomegranate juice increased during storage. It was noted that TSS of juice was initially 150Bx and after 60 days it was 15.50Bx at ambient temperature and 160Bx at refrigeration temperature. Increase in TSS was found to be associated with increase in sugars.
These results were in agreement with those reported by Palaniswamy and Muthukrishnan (1974).
It was found that total sugar, reducing sugars and nonreducing sugar content was increased during storage at both room and refrigeration temperature. The pH of juice showed not much change during storage. Acidity and ascorbic acid content of juice showed decreasing trend during storage period. This decrease in acidity could be due to chemical interactions between organic constituents of the juice particularly organic acids and anthocyanins Palaniswamy and Muthukrishnan (1974). Similar results were reported by Khurdiya and Anand (1981). At room temperature juice when stored for two months decrease in ascorbic acid from 8.5mg/100g to 6.5mg/100g was observed. While at refrigeration temperature ascorbic acid was found to be reduced upto 6.8 mg/100g.
It can be concluded that a good quality spiced pomegranate juice can be prepared from pomegranate fruits. In case of extraction methods for juice extraction, the domestic mixer method was found in relation to yield and other quality characteristics like TSS.Pomegranate cultivar Arakta is suitable for preparation of highly nutritive and palatable spiced Pomegranate juice with its attractive colour Hence this product could be recommended for commercial exploitation..Nevertheless, the pomegranate has commercial potential for production of health related food products. But the systematic and organized approach should be followed with other sophisticated methods for retention of other bio-active components, storage life, clinical studies and packaging requirements.
- AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (15thedition), Washington D.C.:992-995.
- Amerine M A, Pangborn R M and Roessler E V (1987) Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food. Academic Press, New York. PP: 349-397.
- Cam M, Durmaz G, Hisil Y (2009) Classification of eight pomegranate juices based on antioxidant capacity measured by four methods. Food Chem. 112:721-726.
- Chavan U D, Adsule R N and Kadam S S (1995) Physicochemical properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) rind powder. Beverage Food World. 22(1):36.
- Comeroglu B, Artik N and Erbas S (1992) Gewinnung von granatapfel saft and seine zusammensetzung. Fillissiques. Obst. 59:335-340
- Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, Gaieni I, Alavi-Majd H and Azadbakht L (2004) Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. J. Medic. Food. 7(3):305-308.
- Khurdiya D S and Anand J C (1981) Effect of extraction method, container and storage temperature of Phalsa fruit juice. Indian Food Packer. 35(6):68-71.
- Kulkarni A P and Aradhya S M (2005) Chemical changes and antioxidant activity in pomegranate arils during fruit development.Food Chem. 93:319-324.
- La Rae R H (1969) Agric. Expt. Station. University of California. Leaflet. 305-313.
- Miguel G, Dandlen S, Antunes D, Neves A and Martins D (2004) The effect of two different methods of pomegranate (Punica granatum L) juice extraction on quality during storage at 40C. J. Biomed. Biotech., 5:332-337.
- Palaniswamy K P and Muthukrishnan C R (1974) Studies on the physico-chemical characters of lemon juice and squash during storage. Indian Food Packer. 28(4):37-41.
- Panse V.S. and Sukhatme P.V. (1967). Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi, pp70-72.
- Seeram NP, Aviram M, Zhang Y, Henning SM, Feng L, DreherM and Herber D (2008) Comparison of antioxidant potency of commonly consumed polyphenol-rich beverages in the United States. J. Agric Food Chem. 56(4):1415-1422.
- Wrolstad R E, Durst R W and Lee J (2005) Tracking colour and pigment changes in anthocyanin. Trends in Food Sci. Tech. 16:423-428.